Common Causes of Over the Counter Drug Abuse

June 26, 2024

Unearth the common causes of over the counter drug abuse and learn how to prevent and address misuse.

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Understanding Over-the-Counter Drug Abuse

Over-the-counter (OTC) drug abuse, a growing concern worldwide, is the misuse of medications that are legally available without a prescription for their psychoactive effects. This occurs when these drugs are taken in a manner or dose other than directed, or for an unintended purpose. It's a silent issue, often overlooked due to the legal status and easy accessibility of these medications.

Scope of Drug Abuse

In the United States, OTC and prescription drugs, excluding marijuana, are the most commonly abused drugs WebMD. The misuse of these drugs, including pain relievers and cough suppressants, can lead to addiction and potentially pave the way for the use of more dangerous drugs Addiction Center.

The COVID-19 pandemic has exacerbated the situation, with an increase in the utilization of OTC medicines due to symptoms such as cough, fever, fatigue, and headache. This sharp rise in consumption, coupled with the stress, fear, isolation, loneliness, and financial worries brought on by the pandemic, has led to a 25% increase in global prevalence of mental health problems. These conditions are often associated with drug abuse, including OTC medicine abuse.

The misuse of prescription or OTC medicine is a significant area of concern among the younger population as well. A study revealed that 20.2% of high school students misused prescription medicine in 2009, including drugs like Vicodin, Oxycontin, Adderall, and Ritalin. Furthermore, tranquilizers and cough medications are frequently used for non-medical purposes, making prescription and OTC medicines the most abused illicit substances among twelfth-grade students NCBI.

Drug Category % of High School Students Misusing
Prescription Drugs 20.2
Tranquilizers 5.9
Cough Medications 4.6

These sobering statistics illustrate the seriousness and widespread nature of OTC drug abuse, underlining the need for education, prevention strategies, and support for those affected by this often overlooked form of substance abuse. This exploration into the common causes of over the counter drug abuse aims to raise awareness and provide a basis for understanding this complex issue.

Commonly Abused Over-the-Counter Drugs

When discussing the common causes of over the counter drug abuse, it's important to identify the specific drugs that are often misused. These include various classes of drugs, notably barbiturates, benzodiazepines, opioids, and amphetamines, as well as certain medicines intended for sleep, cold, and cough relief.

Barbiturates and Benzodiazepines

Barbiturates and benzodiazepines are two classes of drugs that are often misused due to their potential to induce feelings of relaxation, sedation, and decreased anxiety. These drugs are intended to treat conditions such as anxiety, insomnia, and seizures, but their misuse can lead to physical dependence, addiction, and dangerous side effects if not taken as prescribed [1].

Opioids and Amphetamines

Opioids, including codeine and morphine, are powerful pain relievers that are commonly misused due to their euphoric effects. Similarly, amphetamines – a type of stimulant used to treat conditions like attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) – are often misused for their ability to increase energy and focus.

However, the misuse of these drugs can also lead to serious health risks, including physical dependence and addiction.

In addition to these prescription drugs, several over-the-counter (OTC) medicines are commonly misused. These include:

  • Dextromethorphan (DXM): Found in many OTC cold and cough medicines, DXM can cause hallucinations and is popular among teens for its potential to induce a high. Large doses can lead to vomiting, rapid heart rate, and even brain damage.
  • Pseudoephedrine: Found in OTC cold medicines, pseudoephedrine can be misused due to its stimulant effects [3].
  • Loperamide: An anti-diarrheal available in various forms, loperamide is often misused by individuals who swallow large quantities of the medicine.

The misuse of these OTC drugs, particularly in combination with other substances like alcohol and marijuana, contributes to the growing issue of over the counter drug abuse. It's important to remember that even though these drugs are readily available, they can still pose significant health risks when not used as intended.

Risks and Dangers of Misuse

The misuse of over-the-counter (OTC) drugs is not without risks and dangers. It can lead to physical dependence, addiction, and a range of harmful side effects. Let's delve deeper into these issues.

Physical Dependence and Addiction

The misuse of benzodiazepines, sleep medicines, opioids like codeine and morphine, and stimulants like amphetamines can lead to physical dependence and addiction if not taken as prescribed [1]. Physical dependence is a state where the body has adapted to the presence of a drug, and withdrawal symptoms occur if use is reduced abruptly.

Addiction, on the other hand, is characterized by health problems and failure to meet responsibilities at work, school, or home. It involves the compulsive use of a substance despite its harmful consequences. Misuse of DXM or loperamide, found in some OTC cold medicines, can also lead to addiction.

Side Effects and Health Implications

The side effects and health implications of OTC drug misuse can be severe and even life-threatening. For instance, opioid painkillers like OxyContin, Percocet, Vicodin, Lortab, and Lorcet can cause drowsiness, constipation, and dangerous breathing problems in high doses.

Dextromethorphan (DXM), found in over-the-counter cold and cough medicines, can cause hallucinations and is popular among teens for its potential to get high. Large doses can lead to vomiting, rapid heart rate, and even brain damage.

Overdosing on cold medicines containing DXM or loperamide can be life-threatening. In cases of overdose, breathing often slows or stops, leading to hypoxia, which can result in short- and long-term mental effects, nervous system effects, coma, permanent brain damage, and death [2].

These potential risks and dangers underscore the importance of using OTC drugs responsibly and as directed by healthcare professionals. It's critical to raise awareness about the common causes of over-the-counter drug abuse and promote strategies for prevention and treatment.

Factors Contributing to Abuse

To address the problem of over-the-counter drug misuse, it is necessary to understand the common causes of over the counter drug abuse. There are several contributing factors, with accessibility and availability of these drugs being a key issue, along with the influence of peers and media.

Accessibility and Availability

One of the major factors contributing to over-the-counter (OTC) drug abuse is the easy accessibility and availability of these medications. Adolescents, in particular, are at risk due to their limited knowledge about OTC medications and the misconception that these medications are safe, even at higher than recommended doses. Dextromethorphan and acetaminophen are the most common and frequently misused OTC medications among adolescents, posing significantly dangerous health risks if used improperly [4].

These medications can be procured without a prescription and are available at a relatively low cost in various retail outlets. The implementation of remote healthcare services during the pandemic, including online ordering of medications, has made OTC medicines even more accessible, potentially increasing the challenges in detecting and preventing their abuse [5].

Influence of Peers and Media

The influence of peers and media also plays a significant role in the misuse of OTC drugs. Peer factors can greatly influence an individual's decision to start abusing substances. Individuals who join peers in substance abuse are often drawn by shared behaviors, attitudes, and experiences, seeking the safety provided by these groups or gangs.

In addition, the influence of parents, healthcare professionals, media, and advertisements can contribute to an individual's decision to misuse OTC medications. A family history of substance abuse can also increase the risk of substance misuse, with studies showing that individuals with a positive family history are more prone to misuse various substances, leading to severe dependence symptoms.

Understanding these factors is crucial for creating effective prevention strategies and education programs aimed at reducing the incidence of over-the-counter drug abuse.

Impact of Over-the-Counter Drug Abuse

Understanding the impact of over-the-counter (OTC) drug abuse is vital to addressing the common causes and implementing preventive strategies. These impacts include increased mental health problems and global prevalence concerns.

Increased Mental Health Problems

The abuse of OTC drugs has been linked to an increase in mental health problems. The COVID-19 pandemic, in particular, has exacerbated this issue. Stress, fear of infection, isolation, loneliness, and financial worries have led to a 25% increase in global mental health problems like depression, anxiety, and stress. These mental health issues are often associated with drug abuse, including the misuse of OTC medicines.

The misuse of OTC medicines poses risks such as poor knowledge about therapeutic doses, potential drug-drug interactions, and the masking of symptoms of severe health problems. This is particularly concerning when individuals self-medicate based on suggestions from friends or family, which can lead to increased mental health issues due to the potential for addiction and physical harm.

Global Prevalence and Concerns

The COVID-19 pandemic has also led to an increase in the global prevalence of OTC drug abuse. Symptoms such as cough, fever, fatigue, and headache have resulted in a sharp rise in the consumption of OTC medicines during the pandemic [5].

The implementation of remote healthcare services during the pandemic, including online ordering of medications, has made OTC medicines more accessible. This increased accessibility potentially raises the challenges in detecting and preventing drug abuse, as individuals can more easily obtain these drugs without medical supervision.

Self-medication practices have also significantly increased during the COVID-19 pandemic, with prevalence rates ranging from 33.9% to 51.3%. This has led to the unsupervised use of OTC medicines for managing symptoms like fever, fatigue, nasal congestion, and cough [5].

Impact of OTC Drug Abuse Global Prevalence
Mental Health Problems Increase 25%
Increased Consumption of OTC Medicines Sharp Increase
Self-Medication Practices 33.9% - 51.3%

Understanding these impacts of OTC drug abuse is crucial in formulating and implementing strategies to prevent misuse and manage the associated health risks.

Preventing and Addressing Misuse

Preventing and addressing the misuse of over-the-counter (OTC) drugs is a multi-faceted approach. It involves raising awareness and education about the risks associated with misuse and offering comprehensive treatment and support options for those already affected.

Education and Awareness

Education and awareness are the first steps in preventing the misuse of OTC drugs. Individuals often have poor knowledge about the therapeutic dose, frequency, and duration of OTC medications, potentially leading to adverse events, masking symptoms of severe health problems, and increasing the risk of drug-drug interactions.

Misuse of over-the-counter medicines can also lead to addiction or the use of more dangerous drugs down the road [3]. Therefore, it's vital to educate the public about the risks of self-medication, the importance of using these drugs only as directed, and the potential dangers of misuse.

Education initiatives should target all demographics but may need to pay particular attention to adolescents. Research indicates that adolescents who misuse OTC medications are more likely to engage in the use of illicit drugs and dangerous alcohol consumption.

Treatment and Support Options

For those already dealing with addiction or misuse of OTC drugs, there are several treatment and support options available. While there are no specific medications approved to treat addiction to these OTC medicines, behavioral therapies like cognitive-behavioral therapy and contingency management may help manage addiction [2].

These therapies can help individuals understand the root causes of their misuse, develop healthier coping mechanisms, and build a supportive network that encourages recovery. Withdrawal symptoms from DXM and loperamide have not been extensively studied, but professional medical guidance should be sought for the safest and most effective treatment approaches.

In summary, addressing the common causes of over the counter drug abuse requires a combination of education, awareness, and comprehensive treatment options. With a proactive approach, it's possible to help prevent misuse and support those who are dealing with addiction or misuse.

References

[1]: https://www.webmd.com/mental-health/addiction/ss/slideshow-commonly-abused-drugs

[2]: https://nida.nih.gov/publications/drugfacts/over-counter-medicines

[3]: https://www.addictioncenter.com/drugs/over-the-counter-drugs/

[4]: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6302752/

[5]: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9988622/

[6]: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9731175/

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